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   Mar 01

Dalandan

Botany
Dalandan is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spinescent thorns. Leaves are oblong to subelliptic, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters wide. Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth, and growing from the uppermost leaf axils. Fruit is nearly spherical, 5 to 9 centimeters in diameter, and mamillate or not, the skin is orange red and tight; partitioned inside with yellowish juice sacks. Taste is usually sweet, occasionally sour.

Distribution
- Found throughout the Philippines, invariably planted.
- Found in all warm countries.
- Native of the Old World.


Constituents

• Citric acid, 0.29%; volatile oil-citral, 4%, geraniol, 12%, d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranilic acid methyl ester 0.3%, linalyl acetate 6.35%; indol; stachydrine (alkaloid); hesperidin; fatty oil; carotene; pectin, 6%; vitamins A, B, and C; enzymes; sugar.
• The flowers and rind of the fresh fruit contain neroli, a volatile oil, a fragrant yellowish liquid with a bitter and aromatic taste. It provides the peculiar odor to Eau de cologne or to Spiritus odoratus.
• Rind of the fruit yields a volatile oil, isomeric with oil of turpentine, gum-resin, a fixed oil, which consists of a terpene, dextro-rotatory limonene, three glucosides-herperidin, isoherperidin, aurantiamarin (a bitter crystalline principle), – tannin, and ash, 4 to 5 %.
•The leaves and young unripe fruit contain a volatile oil, the oil of orange leaf or “neroli petit” grain or essence de “pettitgrain.” The oil consists of limonene 20 percent, nerolo 30 percent, nerolyl-acetate 40 percent and geranio 3 percent.
• Limonoid compounds have highest concentration in the early stages of growth of the leaves and fruit and highest in seeds during fruit growth and maturation.
• Contains bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight; used in tanning preparations for skin pigmentation.
• Contains umbelliferone, an antifungal.
• Contains citrantin which has antifertility activity and used in contraceptives.

• The juice of the orange contains principally mucilage, sugar, citric acid, and inorganic salts.

Properties
• Aperitif, aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent, mildly carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, antiemetic, antifungal, antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, stimulant, vermifuge.
• Dried rind is considered aromatic, stomachic, tonic
, astringent, and mildly carminative.

Parts used
Flowers, fruit and rind.

Uses
Nutrition / Culinary
- A good source of vitamin C.
- Rich in flavonoids.
- Dried flowers is a pleasant flavoring agent.
- Condiment, fruit, oil.
- Peel used for making marmalades and candies.
- Flowers used for scenting tea.
- Essential oil from the dried fruit used as food flavoring.
- Fruit rind used for baking flavors.
- In Iran, the orange peel used as flavoring for boiled rice and other vegetables.
- Fruit is used for making sauces, creams, jelly, honey, etc.
Folkloric
- Juice is a cooling drink, and used as food, particularly for the febrile and scorbutic.
- In the Philippines, the leaves, peel, and flowers are used as stomachic and antiscorbutic.
- Decoction of rind taken for gas pains. Decoction of peel also used as emmenagogue.
- Leaves are applied to reduce swelling in the legs. Also used as tonic, pectorals and in bronchitis.
- For nausea and fainting, squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation.
- Dried flowers used as stimulant and preventive for dysentery. Flowers used as antispasmodic.
- Orange peel used in preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.
- Dried rind is used as tonic dyspepsia and for general debility; also used to check vomiting.
- Fresh rind is rubbed on the face for acne or eczema.
- Juice used with salt as a ringworm remedy.
- Water distilled from the orange flowers used as stimulant, and as a refresing drink in nervousness and hysterical cases.
- Used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant
- In traditional Chinese medicine, Zhi shi, the immature dried fruit of citrus aurantium, has been used to treat chest congestion and stimulate gastrointestinal functions. Peel of immature fruit used for indigestion, abdominal pains, constipation, and dysenteric diarrhea.
- Bitter orange seeds or pips, first torrefied to remove the husks, taken as a stimulating remedy.
- Oil from the rind is used internally and externally, as a stimulating liniment, for gout and rheumatism.
- In Mexico and South America, leaf used as tonic, laxative, sedative; peel used for stomach aches and high blood pressure.
- Basque in Europe used the leaves for stomachaches, insomnia and palpitationsw.
Others
- In India, neroli oil, mixed with vaseline, for leech prevention.
- In recent years, Citrus aurantium supplements has been promoted for appetite control.
- Perfumery: Oil distilled from flowers used in perfumery.
- Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.



Studies
• Citrus flavonoids have potential antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory activity, and cholesterol lowering potential.
• Thermogenic / Weight Reducing: (1) Since the withdrawal of ephedrine in weight loss formulations, C. aurantium has gained entry as a substitute, and has been reported to aid in weight loss in two studies and increase thermogenesis in three studies. Three studies reported increased metabolic rates when ingesting C. aurantium products, presenting a thermogenic substitute for ephedra.
(See Caution note below)
• Antioxidant: Study of a methanolic extract of the CA peel showed good antioxdant activity.
• Behavioral Effects: The orange essential oil has been attributed sedative and relaxing properties. In the study in rats, the decrease in level of emotionality in animals suggest a possible central action, in agreement with its phytochemical oil yield of limonene and mircene components with known CNS depressant activity.
• Safety and Efficacy As Weight Loss Supplement: A study on the safety and efficacy of the herbal remedy citrus aurantium for weight loss concludes that there was no evidence it is effective for weight loss.
• Cardiovascular Effects: A study investigating the cardiovascular effects of CA ingestion, in an herbal blend, on mildly overweight individuals showed that acute ingestion did not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation increased in certain populations.
• Chemopreventive / Isolimonic Acid / Ichanexic Acid: A study isolated two bioactive compounds – isolimonic acid and a novel compund, ichanexic acid. Both showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against cancer cells in vitro. Neither showed any apparent cytostatic effects on non-cancerous COS-1 fibroblast cells. Results suggest a potential role for lead structures for the development of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents.
• Anthelmintic: Study evaulated the anthelmintic activity of fresh juice of Citrus aurantium against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. All dilutions showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity.

 

Caution !
• Herbal Weight Loss Ingredient / Ephedra Substitute / Risks:
Since the banning of ephedra-containing weight loss products, products containing C. aurantium have surfaced. C. aurantium contains flavonoids and can increase blood levels of drugs (cyclosporine, felodipine, indinavir) with potential drug interactions and attendant side effects. Some extracts and/ or supplements contain high levels of synephrine which may cause increased heart rate and other signs and symptoms associated with increased metabolism.

Availability
Cultivated
Wild-crafted.

Extracts and weight loss supplements in the cybermarket.

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