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   Mar 01

Damong maria

Botany
Damong-maria is an erect perennial herb; hairy, aromatic, often semiwoody, growing to a height of 1 meter. Stems are leafy and branched. Leaves are pinnately lobed, 5 to 14 centimeters long, hairy, gray beneath, with nearly smooth above. Flowering heads are numerous, ovoid, 3 to 4 mm long, occurring in large numbers in spikelike, ascending, and branched inflorescenses. Fruit, an achene, is minute.

Distribution
- In and about towns at low and medium altitudes.
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines, around the houses, gardens and open places.
- Introduced, often planted, frequently established.

Constituents
Plant yields a volatile oil consisting of cineol, thujone, paraffin and aldehyde.
Roots contain inulin, tannin, resin and a volatile oil, 0.1 per cent.
Study of crude extract yielded alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and terpenes.

Properties
Fragrant but bitter to taste.
Emmenagogue, vulnerary.
Plant considered a valuable stomachic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, deobstruent, antispasmodic, tonic.
Leaves and flowering tops considered tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic and emmenagogue.

Parts utilized
Leaves and flowers.

Uses
Folkloric
- Decoction of fresh leaves and flowering tops, 50 g in a pint of water, 4-5 glasses daily as expectorant.
- Juice of leaves used as vulnerary, to heal wounds and cuts.
- As emmenagogue: A strong decoction of leaves, 6-7 glasses a day to induce menstruation; also, for post-partum abdominal cramps.
- Juice of leaves applied to head of young children during convulsions.
- For intestinal deworming, decoction of boiled leaves, followed by the juice of aloe or other purgative plants.
- Decoction of leaves used for abdominal colic pains.
- Leaf poultice for headache and skin diseases.
- Decoction of dried leaves used for asthma and dyspepsia.
- Juice used externally for scabies, eczema, herpes.
- With ginger: Pounded leaves, mixed with ginger are wrapped in banana leaves and heated over a fire, and applied to wounds and swollen and inflammed dermal afflictions.
- Stimulates appetite, young leaves used for anorexia.
- Infusion of aromatic leaves used to induce menstruation. Also, used as abortifacient, but considered too mild a uterine stimulant to be reliable for that purpose.
- Used as infusion and electuary for obstructed menses and hysteria.
- Externally, used as alterative as fomentations for skin diseases and foul ulcers.
- Expressed juice of plant applied to the head of children to prevent convulsions.
- In Uruguay, plant used as vermifuge.
- In China, used as hemostatic, antiseptic, and caminative; used as decoction for hemoptysis, dysentery, menorrhagia, postpartum hemorrahges, as a wash for wounds and ulcers, and to relieve gripping pains of indigestion, diarrhea, or dysentery.
- Juice of plant used for tapeworm.
- A tincture, made up in native spirits, used as nerve sedativ e in abdominal pain and in labor.
- In Persia, Afghanistan and throughout India, strong decoction used as vermifuge; a weak decoction used in children for measles.
- Leaves, dried and cut in small fragments, used to cauterize wounds.
- In Anman, leaves used for hemorrhage, epistaxis, hematemesis and hematuria.
- Used as vermicide; used in eczema, herpes and purulent scabies.
Others
- Flowering tops of mugwort used by modern dyers in the production of green dye.
-Before tobacco, leaves smoked by old people.
- Young and tender leaves used as pot herb.
-
Fresh or dried plant repels insects.
Moxa
- Fresh leaves are picked in the spring and sun-dried, then ground to a fine powder (moxa wool). The wool is kneaded into cones that are buned on the skin. Sometimes, the Moxa wool is prepared in combinationn with the powder of other herbals.
• The burning of moxa herb sticks (compressed dried leaves) is a treatment modality of the acupuncturist. It is placed above the skin, along meridians or specific acupuncture points, mean to restore good health, energy balancing, release of Qi – a process called Moxibustion.
• The moxibustion of mugwort has been used in correcting breech presentation of fetuses into cephalic orientation. Also used to cause abortion.

Studies
Phytochemicals:
Study of dichlormethane extract of dried-leaves of Av yielded a new sesquiterpene 1, caryophyllene oxide, phytyl fatty esters, squalene, stigmasterol and sitosterol.
Estrogenic Flavonoids from Artemisia vulgaris L. :
A study isolated twenty known flavonoids, the most abundant were eriodictyol and luteolin. Two flavonoids, eriodictyol and apigenin, induced the transcription of the estrogen receptor gene in transgenic yeast.
Major dicaffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia vulgaris
Hepatoprotective:
Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris: Pre-treatment of mice reduced the toxin-induced rise in ALT and AST in induced-hepatitis. The study scientifically validates the traditional use of A. vulgaris for various liver disorders.
Anti-inflammatory: In vivo microvascular actions of Artemisia vulgaris L. in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat intestinal mesentery: Study showed the extracts significantly reduced leukocyte adherence and transendothelial leakage while improving flow in the ischemia-reperfused organ. The extract contained yomogin, previously shown to inhibit iNOS activity, and may explain the anti-inflammatory porperty of the plant.

• Moxa Burning–Health Hazard?UK tested the potential toxicity of smoke produced by the buring of Moxa in traditional Chinese medicine. Sidestream smoke from cigar-shaped “sticks” or “rolls” of Moxa was tested showed levels of only two volatiles equivalent or greater than the safe exposure levels, as well as carbon monoxide levels. Study gives no immediate concerns from continued use of moxa as a therapeutic modality. However, it suggests further testing for ventilation, cleansing of room environ and use of moxa on broken skin.
• Anti-Trichinellosis: Trichinellosis can cause diarrhea, fever, periorbital edema and myositis in humans. This study on the methanol extracts of aerial parts of Av showed reduction of larval rate with significantly reduced antibody response during the enteral and parenteral phases. Results suggest Av can be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.
• Anti-Hypertensive: Study suggests that the aqueous and chloroform extracts of leaves of Av have anti-hypertensive actions with not significant effecfts on cardiovascular hemodynamics.
• Antioxidant: Study of extract of Av yielded flavonoidal and flavonol contents and exhibited nitric oxide scavenging activity, significant increases in glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity and serum ascorbic acid levels. Results indicate Av is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
• Anticonvulsant: In a study of the aqueous extracts of leaves and stems of seven medicinal plants on Picrotoxin-induced seizures in mice, Artemisia vulgaris was one of four extracts to delay the onset of seizures and decrease the mortality rate.
• Radical Scavenging Activity / Essential Oil: Study revealed the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris possessed remarkable radical scavenging activity and might be effective against diseases caused by over production of free radicals.
• Antispasmodic / Bronchodilator: Study showed A. vulgaris exhibits a combination of anticholinergic and Ca+ antagonist mechanisms, providing pharmacologic basis for its folkloric use in hyperactive gut and airway disorders, such as abdominal coli, diarrhea and asthma.

Caution
Pregnancy: Should not be used by pregnant women.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

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